Volume 8, Issue 5, October 2020, Page: 146-151
Penman and Thornthwaite Equations for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration Under Semi-Arid Environment
Muhammad Hafeez, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Department of Botany, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan
Abdul Basit, Department of Botany, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan
Zia Ahmad Chattha, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Alamgir Akhtar Khan, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan
Muhammad Adnan Majeed, School of Engineering, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
Fatima Tahira, Department of Mathematics, Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan, Pakistan
Received: Apr. 10, 2020;       Accepted: Aug. 22, 2020;       Published: Sep. 24, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.jps.20200805.16      View  40      Downloads  18
The estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is required for effective development and management of agriculture water systems. In order to define the most accurate method to estimate ETo in semi-arid climatic environment of Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar. Penman ETo method and Thornthwaite ETo method are compared with standard Penman-Monteith (PM) ETo method. The statistical results show that the Penman ETo method overestimate ETo as compared to the PM ETo method in all the semi-arid climatic regions of Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar by 34.91%, 39.51% and 30.75%, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) were 0.98, 0.98 and 0.99 at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar weather stations, respectively. The root mean square error (RMSE) are 2.47 mm/day, 2.64 mm/day and 2.19 mm/day at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar weather station, respectively. The mean bias error (MBE) of-2.41 mm/day,-2.58 mm/day and-2.13 mm/day are noted at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar weather stations, respectively. The statistical results of Thornthwaite (Th) ETo method with PM ETo method indicate underestimation of ETo in winter season and overestimation of ETo in summer season by 13.81%, 22.43% and 14.54% at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar stations, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) of Thornthwait ETo method when compared with PM ETo method 0.92, 0.89 and 0.95 are noted at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar weather stations, respectively. The root mean square error (RMSE) are 2.14 mm/day, 2.36 mm/day and 1.16 mm/day at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar weather stations, respectively. The mean bias error (MBE) are-0.68 mm/day,-1.12 mm/day and 0.61 mm/day at Faisalabad, Lahore and Peshawar weather stations, respectively. Overall, Thornthwaite method gave better estimation of ETo than Penman ETo method at all the Weather stations.
Penman, Thornthwaite, Penman-Monteith, Reference Evapotranspiration, Semi-arid
To cite this article
Muhammad Hafeez, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Abdul Basit, Zia Ahmad Chattha, Alamgir Akhtar Khan, Muhammad Adnan Majeed, Fatima Tahira, Penman and Thornthwaite Equations for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration Under Semi-Arid Environment, Journal of Plant Sciences. Vol. 8, No. 5, 2020, pp. 146-151. doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20200805.16
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Chatha, Z. A., Arshad, M., Bakhah, A. and Shakoor, A., 2015. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS FOR LINING THE WATERCOURSES. J. Agric. Res, 53 (1).
Zarei, A. R., Zare, S. and Parsamehr, A. H., 2015. Comparison of several methods to estimate reference evapotranspiration. West African Journal of Applied Ecology, 23 (2), pp. 17-25.
Fooladmand, H. R., 2012. Comparing reference evapotranspiration using actual and estimated sunshine hours in south of Iran. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7 (7), pp. 1164-1169.
Berti, A., Tardivo, G., Chiaudani, A., Rech, F. and Borin, M., 2014. Assessing reference evapotranspiration by the Hargreaves method in north-eastern Italy. Agricultural Water Management, 140, pp. 20-25.
Kisi, O., 2014. Modeling solar radiation of Mediterranean region in Turkey by using fuzzy genetic approach. Energy, 64, pp. 429-436.
Majeed, A., Mehmood, S., Sarwar, K., Nabi, G. and Kharal, M. A., 2017. Assessment of Reference Evapotranspiration by the Hargreaves Method in Southern Punjab Pakistan. European Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology, 4 (1), pp. 64-70.
Xu, C. Y. and Chen, D., 2005. Comparison of seven models for estimation of evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge using lysimeter measurement data in Germany. Hydrological Processes: An International Journal, 19 (18), pp. 3717-3734.
Valipour, M., 2015. Study of different climatic conditions to assess the role of solar radiation in reference crop evapotranspiration equations. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 61 (5), pp. 679-694.
Azhar, A. H. and Perera, B. J. C., 2011. Evaluation of reference evapotranspiration estimation methods under southeast Australian conditions. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 137 (5), pp. 268-279.
da Silva, V. J., Carvalho, H. D. P., da Silva, C. R., Camargo, R. D. and Teodoro, R. E. F., 2011. Performance of different methods of estimating the daily reference evapotranspiration in Uberlandia, MG. Bioscience Journal, 27 (1), pp. 95-101.
Tabari, H., Grismer, M. E. and Trajkovic, S., 2013. Comparative analysis of 31 reference evapotranspiration methods under humid conditions. Irrigation Science, 31 (2), pp. 107-117.
DeJonge, K. C., Ahmadi, M., Ascough II, J. C. and Kinzli, K. D., 2015. Sensitivity analysis of reference evapotranspiration to sensor accuracy. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 110, pp. 176-186.
Hafeez, M. and Khan, A. A., 2018. Assessment of Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle methods to estimate reference evapotranspiration under coastal conditions. American Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, 3 (4), pp. 65-72.
Mehdizadeh, S., Saadatnejadgharahassanlou, H. and Behmanesh, J., 2017. Calibration of Hargreaves–Samani and Priestley–Taylor equations in estimating reference evapotranspiration in the Northwest of Iran. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 63 (7), pp. 942-955.
Yoder, R. E., Odhiambo, L. O. and Wright, W. C., 2005. Evaluation of methods for estimating daily reference crop evapotranspiration at a site in the humid southeast United States. Applied engineering in agriculture, 21 (2), pp. 197-202.
McMahon, T. A., Peel, M. C., Lowe, L., Srikanthan, R. and McVicar, T. R., 2013. Estimating actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation using standard meteorological data: a pragmatic synthesis. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, 17 (4), pp. 1331-1363.
Yates, D. and Strzepek, K. M., 1994. Comparison of models for climate change assessment of river basin runoff.
Alexandris, S., Stricevic, R. and Petkovic, S., 2008. Comparative analysis of reference evapotranspiration from the surface of rainfed grass in central Serbia, calculated by six empirical methods against the Penman-Monteith formula. European Water, 21 (22), pp. 17-28.
Tukimat, N. N. A., Harun, S. and Shahid, S., 2012. Comparison of different methods in estimating potential evapotranspiration at Muda Irrigation Scheme of Malaysia. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (JARTS), 113 (1), pp. 77-85.
Tahashildar, M., Bora, P. K., Ray, L. I. and Thakuria, D., 2017. Comparison of different reference evapotranspiration (ET^ sub 0^) models and determination of crop-coefficients of french bean (Phesiolus vulgaris.) in mid hill region of Meghalaya. Journal of Agrometeorology, 19 (3), pp. 233-237.
Er-Raki, S., Chehbouni, A., Khabba, S., Simonneaux, V., Jarlan, L., Ouldbba, A., Rodriguez, J. C. and Allen, R., 2010. Assessment of reference evapotranspiration methods in semi-arid regions: can weather forecast data be used as alternate of ground meteorological parameters? Journal of Arid Environments, 74 (12), pp. 1587-1596.
Bois, B., Pieri, P., Leeuwen, C. V. and Gaudillere, J. P., 2005. Sensitivity analysis of the Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration formula and comparison of empirical methods used in viticulture soil water balance. In XIV International GESCO Viticulture Congress, Geisenheim, Germany, 23-27 August, 2005 (pp. 187-193). Groupe d'Etude des Systemes de COnduite de la vigne (GESCO).
Schneider, K., Ketzer, B., Breuer, L., Vaché, K. B., Bernhofer, C. and Frede, H. G., 2007. Evaluation of evapotranspiration methods for model validation in a semi-arid watershed in northern China.
Gocić, M., Motamedi, S., Shamshirband, S., Petković, D., Ch, S., Hashim, R. and Arif, M., 2015. Soft computing approaches for forecasting reference evapotranspiration. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 113, pp. 164-173.
Turc, L., 1961. Estimation of irrigation water requirements, potential evapotranspiration: a simple climatic formula evolved up to date. Ann. Agron, 12 (1), pp. 13-49.
Blaney, H. F. and Criddle, W. D., 1950. Determining water needs from climatological data. USDA Soil Conservation Service. SOS–TP, USA, pp. 8-9.
Haith, D. A. and Shoemaker, L. L., 1987. Generalized Watershed Loading Functions for Stream Flow Nutrients 1. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 23 (3), pp. 471-478.
Thornthwaite, C. W., 1948. An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geographical review, 38 (1), pp. 55-94.
Priestley, C. H. B. and Taylor, R. J., 1972. On the assessment of surface heat flux and evaporation using large-scale parameters. Monthly weather review, 100 (2), pp. 81-92.
Allen, R. G., Pereira, L. S., Raes, D. and Smith, M., 1998. Crop Evapotranspiration-Guidelines for computing crop water requirements-FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. Fao, Rome, 300 (9), p. D05109.
Le, T. P. Q., Seidler, C., Kändler, M. and Tran, T. B. N., 2012. Proposed methods for potential evapotranspiration calculation of the Red River basin (North Vietnam). Hydrological Processes, 26 (18), pp. 2782-2790.
Niaghi, A. R., Majnooni-Heris, A., Haghi, D. Z. and Mahtabi, G., 2013. Evaluate several potential evapotranspiration methods for regional use in Tabriz, Iran. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 3 (6), pp. 31-41.
Ravelli, F. and Rota, P., 1999. Monthly frequency maps of reference evapotranspiration and crop water deficits in southern italy. Rome: Irrigation Experimentation Office of the Former Southern Italy Development Agency.
Irmak, S., Allen, R. G. and Whitty, E. B., 2003. Daily grass and alfalfa-reference evapotranspiration estimates and alfalfa-to-grass evapotranspiration ratios in Florida. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 129 (5), pp. 360-370.
Garcia, M., Raes, D., Allen, R. and Herbas, C., 2004. Dynamics of reference evapotranspiration in the Bolivian highlands (Altiplano). Agricultural and forest meteorology, 125 (1-2), pp. 67-82.
Zhao, C., Nan, Z. and Cheng, G., 2005. Evaluating methods of estimating and modelling spatial distribution of evapotranspiration in the middle Heihe River basin, China. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1 (4), pp. 278-285.
Penman, H. L., 1963. Vegetation and hydrology. Soil Science, 96 (5), p. 357.
Djaman, K., Balde, A. B., Sow, A., Muller, B., Irmak, S., N’Diaye, M. K., Manneh, B., Moukoumbi, Y. D., Futakuchi, K. and Saito, K., 2015. Evaluation of sixteen reference evapotranspiration methods under sahelian conditions in the Senegal River Valley. Journal of Hydrology: regional studies, 3, pp. 139-159.
Pereira, A. R. and Pruitt, W. O., 2004. Adaptation of the Thornthwaite scheme for estimating daily reference evapotranspiration. Agricultural Water Management, 66 (3), pp. 251-257.
Trajkovic, S., Gocic, M., Pongracz, R., Bartholy, J. and Milanovic, M., 2020. Assessment of Reference Evapotranspiration by Regionally Calibrated Temperature-Based Equations. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 24 (3), pp. 1020-1027.
Hussein, A. S., 1999. Grass ET estimates using Penman-type equations in Central Sudan. Journal of irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 125 (6), pp. 324-329.
Trajkovic, S., Gocic, M., Pongracz, R. and Bartholy, J., 2019. Adjustment of Thornthwaite equation for estimating evapotranspiration in Vojvodina. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 138 (3-4), pp. 1231-1240.
Lang, D., Zheng, J., Shi, J., Liao, F., Ma, X., Wang, W., Chen, X. and Zhang, M., 2017. A comparative study of potential evapotranspiration estimation by eight methods with FAO Penman–Monteith method in southwestern China. Water, 9 (10), p. 734.
Afzaal, H., Farooque, A. A., Abbas, F., Acharya, B. and Esau, T., 2020. Computation of Evapotranspiration with Artificial Intelligence for Precision Water Resource Management. Applied Sciences, 10 (5), p. 1621.
Gundalia, M. and Dholakia, M., 2016. Modelling Daily Reference Evapotranspiration in Middle South Saurashtra Region of India for Monsoon Season using Dominant Meteorological Variables and the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith Method. Int. J. of Sustainable Water & Environmental Systems, 8 (2), pp. 101-108.
Moeletsi, M. E., Walker, S. and Hamandawana, H., 2013. Comparison of the Hargreaves and Samani equation and the Thornthwaite equation for estimating dekadal evapotranspiration in the Free State Province, South Africa. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 66, pp. 4-15.
Browse journals by subject