Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2015, Page: 264-271
Purification and Toxicity Study of a Saponin from Seeds of Albizia odorata, a Fabaceae from Madagascar
Clara Fredeline Rajemiarimoelisoa, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Antananarivo, University of Antananarivo, Madagascar
Danielle Aurore Doll Rakoto, Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry to Medical Sciences, Fundamental and Applied Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antananarivo, Antananarivo, Madagascar
Hanitra Ranjana Randrianarivo, Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry to Medical Sciences, Fundamental and Applied Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antananarivo, Antananarivo, Madagascar
Victor Louis Jeannoda, Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry to Medical Sciences, Fundamental and Applied Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antananarivo, Antananarivo, Madagascar
Received: Sep. 19, 2015;       Accepted: Oct. 7, 2015;       Published: Oct. 19, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.jps.20150305.14      View  4146      Downloads  100
Abstract
In order to continue the research of natural compounds of interest such as pesticides and therapeutic molecules in endemic species of Albizia from Madagascar, potentials of Albizia odorata seed extract were assessed. A toxic saponin (saponoside), named Albodorine, was isolated by extraction with hot ethanol or distilled water followed by purification procedure comprising n-butanol partition, precipitation by aceton-diethyl ether (50/50), Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography and silica gel chromatography. All these methods were guided by toxicity tests on mice and homogeneity tests by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Albodorine was thermostable, soluble in water and organic solvents and tasted bitter. Its acidic hydrolysis released glucose, arabinose and rhamnose. Tested on different experimental animal models, it was toxic to warm and cold blooded animals. In mouse, when intraperitoneally administered, it caused acute intoxication mainly presented as hyperpnea, ataxia and terminal seizures before the animal died. Its LD50 was about 9 mg/kg of mouse body weight by intraperitoneal route. In different organs, it caused histopathological lesions characterized by vascular congestions and important hemorrhage in liver, lungs and kidneys. In vitro, it reduced the heart rate and force of contraction of isolated rat atria. It had hemolytic activity. Albodorine showed toxicological properties that could be exploited under certain conditions for the control of harmful organisms.
Keywords
Albizia odorata, Toxin, Albodorine, Saponin, Hemolysis, Histopathology, Isolated Atria, Inotropic Effect
To cite this article
Clara Fredeline Rajemiarimoelisoa, Danielle Aurore Doll Rakoto, Hanitra Ranjana Randrianarivo, Victor Louis Jeannoda, Purification and Toxicity Study of a Saponin from Seeds of Albizia odorata, a Fabaceae from Madagascar, Journal of Plant Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015, pp. 264-271. doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20150305.14
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