Volume 3, Issue 4, August 2015, Page: 225-233
Optimization of Seed Potato Specific Density, Starch and Dry Matter Contents and Tuberization Capacity of Resultant Plants Through Integrated Irrigation, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Management
Gathungu Geofrey Kingori, Department of Plant Science, Chuka University, Chuka, Kenya
Aguyoh Joseph Nyamori, Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soils, Egerton University, Egerton, Kenya; School of Agriculture, Natural Resources & Environmental Studies, Rongo University College, Rongo, Kenya
Isutsa Dorcas Khasungu, Department of Plant Science, Chuka University, Chuka, Kenya; Department of Crops, Horticulture and Soils, Egerton University, Egerton, Kenya
Received: Jul. 15, 2015;       Accepted: Jul. 23, 2015;       Published: Aug. 1, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.jps.20150304.19      View  4532      Downloads  134
A study was conducted in a Rainshelter (RTrial) at the Horticultural Research and Teaching Farm of Egerton University to determine the effect of integrated application of irrigation water, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on seed potato physiological quality and performance of plants resulting from them. The treatments arranged in a split-split plot in a completely randomized block design, consisted of three irrigation water rates (40%, 65% and 100% field capacity), four N rates (0, 75, 112.5 and 150 kg N/ha) supplied as urea (46% N), and four P rates (0, 50.6, 75.9, 101.2 kg P/ha) supplied as triple superphosphate with experiment replicated three times and repeated once. After harvest seed specific density, starch and dry matter contents were determined after which 15 seed tubers per treatment were stored for 90 days under diffuse-light sprouting conditions for postharvest (PTrial) evaluation. Later, three potato tubers were selected per treatment and planted to study growth vigour and tuberization capacity of resultant potato plants both in PTrials I and II. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and significantly different means were separated using Tukey’s Studentized Range Test at P=0.05. Specific density, starch and dry matter contents increased from 40% to 65% irrigation water. Application of irrigation water beyond 65% reduced the specific density, starch and dry matter contents by 0.03, 2.6%, 3.7% and 0.04, 3.7%, 5.2% in RTrials I and II, respectively. The 100% compared to 65% irrigation rate reduced post-treatment evaluation stem number, density and height at 57 DAP by 1.3 and 1.1, 15.1 and 12.6, and 13.4 cm and 10.3 cm, and tuberization capacity in resultant plants by 5 and 8.7 tubers, in PTrials I and II, respectively. Application of N and P significantly increased seed potato specific density, starch and dry matter contents but application of N and P beyond 112.5 kg N/ha and 75.9 kg P/ha respectively reduced the same both in RTrials I and II, respectively. In postharvest evaluation integration of N at 0 to 112.5 kg N/ha with 65% irrigation rate increased the number of tubers produced by the resultant plants by 3.4 and 5.4, while high P rate at 75.9 kg P/ha increased tuberization by 8.4 and 10.7, in RTrials I and II, respectively. Integration of 65% irrigation rate, 112.5 kg N/ha and 75.9 kg P/ha rates optimized potato growth, and vigour of resulting potato plants.
Potato, Irrigation, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Seed Quality, Resultant Plants, Tuberization
To cite this article
Gathungu Geofrey Kingori, Aguyoh Joseph Nyamori, Isutsa Dorcas Khasungu, Optimization of Seed Potato Specific Density, Starch and Dry Matter Contents and Tuberization Capacity of Resultant Plants Through Integrated Irrigation, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Management, Journal of Plant Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2015, pp. 225-233. doi: 10.11648/j.jps.20150304.19
FAO. (2009). New light on a hidden treasure: International year of the potato 2008. An end of year review. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Electronic Publishing Policy and Support Branch, Communication Division, Rome, Italy, 144 pp.
Kumar, CV., Prakash, SS., Prashantha, GM., Kumar, MBM., Lohith, S. and Chikkaramappa, T. (2013). Dry matter production and yield of potato as influenced by different sources and time of fertilizer application and soil chemical properties under rainfed conditions. Research Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(2): 155-159.
Singh, HP. (2008). Policies and Strategies Conducive to Potato Development in Asia and the Pacific Region. In Proceedings of the Workshop to Commemorate the International Year of the Potato - 2008, held at FAO, Bangkok, Thailand, 6 May 2008. FAO RAP Publication 2008/07, pp. 18-29.
Ministry of agriculture (MOA). (2009). National Potato Taskforce Report. Final report, Nairobi, Kenya. 2009. 53 pp.
The Organic Farmer Magazine (TOF). (2012). Potatoes: Seeds and storage cause problems. The Organic Farmer (12th September). African Insect Science for Food and Health (ICIPE), Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.theorganicfarmer.org/potatoes-seeds-and-storage-cause-problems/.
International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE). (2010). The organic farmer. The magazine for sustainable agriculture in Kenya. ICIPE. Nairobi. Kenya. No. 61 June 2010. 8 pp.
Reform the potato industry. In: The Organic Farmer, No. 97. African Insect Science for Food and Health (ICIPE), Nairobi, Kenya.
Van Der Zaag, P. (1981). Soil fertility requirements for potato production. Technical information bulletin, No. 14. CIP, Lima, Peru.20 pp.
Bowen, WT. (2003). Water productivity and potato cultivation, p. 229-238. In: J.W. Kijne, R. Barker and Molden, D. (eds.). Water Productivity in Agriculture: Limits and Opportunities for Improvement. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Kiziloglu, FM., Sahin, U., Tune, T. and Diler, S. (2006). The effect of deficit irrigation on potato evapotranspiration and tuber yield under cool season and semiarid climatic conditions. Journal of Agronomy, 5:284-288.
Hassanpanah, D. (2009). In vitro and in vivo screening of potato cultivars against water stress by polyethylene glycol and potassium humate. Biotechnology, 8(1):132-137.
Waraich. EA., Ahmad, R., Saifullah, M., Ashraf, MY, and Ehsanullah, E. (2011). Role of mineral nutrition in alleviation of drought stress in plants. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5(6):764-777.
Sharma, V., Sharma, IP., Spehia, RS, and R. Kumar. (2012). Influence of irrigation methods and fertilizer levels on productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 82 (2): 117–121.
Gruhn, P., Goletti, F. and Yudelman, M. (2000). Integrated nutrient management, soil fertility, and sustainable agriculture: Current issues and future challenges. Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper 32, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C.
Cakmak, I. (2002). Plant nutrition research priorities to meet human needs for food in sustainable ways. Plant Soil 247:3–24.
Thompson, AJ., King, JA., Smith, KA. and Don, HT. (2007). Opportunities for reducing water use in agriculture. Defra Research Project Final Report for WU0101.
DPI. 2010. Potatoes: Measurement of Specific Gravity. Department of Primary Industries, 1 Spring Street Melbourne, Victoria, Australia ISSN1329-8062. Accessed on 28.2.2013, at: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/agriculture/horticulture/vegetables/potatoes/potatoes-measurement-specific-gravity.
Kawano, KF., Goncalvez, WM and Cenpukdee, U. (1987). Genetic and environmental effects on dry matter content of cassava root. Crop Science, 27:69-74.
Wiersema, SG. (1987). Effect of stem density on potato production. Technical Information Bulletin 1. CIP, Lima, Peru, 16 pp.
Fernando, N. and Slater, T. (2010). Potatoes: Factors Affecting Dry Matter. Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia. Note Number: AG0323 http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/agriculture/horticulture/vegetables/potatoes/potatoes-factors-affecting-dry-matter, Downloaded: 14.5.2013.
Makaraviciute, A. (2003). Effect of organic and mineral fertilisers on the yield and quality of different potato varieties. Agronomy Research, 1(2):197-209.
Thornton, MK. (2002). Effects of heat and water stress on the physiology of potatoes. Paper presented at the Idaho Potato Conference on January 23, 2002.
Burt, WG. (1989). Varietal differences in growth, yield of tubers and percentage of dry matter in the tubers. In: Burt, WG. (Ed.). The Potato. Longman Scientific and Technical: Harlow, UK, pp. 142-215.
Francakova, H., Liskova, M., Tatiana Bojnanska, T. and Marecek, J. 2012. Changes of carbohydrates complex influenced by the storage time. Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology and Food Science, 2011/12: 1(3) 446-454.
USAID. (2011). Potato Production: Planting Through Harvest. United States Agency for International Development. USAID-Inma Agribusiness team. The Louis Berger Group, Inc. Washington, DC.
Olsen, N. and Hornbacher, A. (2002). Effect of the season on seed potato physiology and performance. Paper Presented at Idaho Potato Conference on January 2, pp. 133-138.
Oliveira, JS., Moot, D., Brown, HE., Gash, A. and Sinton, S. (2012). Sprout development of seed potato tuber after different storage conditions. Agronomy New Zealand, 4:53-58.
Christiansen, J., Pederson, H. and Feder, C. (2006). Variations in physiological age among seed potato lots. 2:6-9. In: NJF-Seminar 386, Seed Potatoes: Physiological age, diseases and variety testing in the Nordic countries. (NJF, ed.). Nordic Association of Agricultural Science, 1-2 February, Sigtuna, Sweden.
Kleinkopf, GE., Brandt, TL. and Olsen, N. (2003). Physiology of tuber bulking. Paper Presented at Idaho Potato Conference on January 23, 2002.
Browse journals by subject